Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus (2024)

Abstract

Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (HPAI H5N1) viruses occasionally infect, but typically do not transmit, in mammals. In the Spring of 2024, an unprecedented outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in bovine herds occurred in the US, with virus spread within and between herds, infections in poultry and cats, and spillover into humans, collectively indicating an increased public health risk1-4. Here, we characterized an HPAI H5N1 virus isolated from infected cow milk in mice and ferrets. Like other HPAI H5N1 viruses, the bovine H5N1 virus spread systemically, including to the mammary glands of both species; however, this tropism was also observed for an older HPAI H5N1 virus isolate. Importantly, bovine HPAI H5N1 virus bound to sialic acids expressed in human upper airways and inefficiently transmitted to exposed ferrets (one of four exposed ferrets seroconverted without virus detection). Bovine HPAI H5N1 virus thus possesses features that may facilitate infection and transmission in mammals.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Access through your institution

Change institution

Buy or subscribe

Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals

Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription

$29.99 /30days

cancel any time

Learn more

Subscribe to this journal

Receive 51 print issues and online access

$199.00 per year

only $3.90 per issue

Learn more

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type

from$1.95

to$39.95

Learn more

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Similar content being viewed by others

Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus (1)

Characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses in the ferret model

Article Open access 29 July 2020

Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus (3)

Risk assessment of a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus from mink

Article Open access 15 May 2024

Author information

Author notes

  1. These authors contributed equally: Amie J. Eisfeld, Asim Biswas, Lizheng Guan, Chunyang Gu, Tadashi Maemura

Authors and Affiliations

  1. Influenza Research Institute, Dept. of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

    Amie J. Eisfeld,Asim Biswas,Lizheng Guan,Chunyang Gu,Tadashi Maemura,Sanja Trifkovic,Tong Wang,Lavanya Babujee,Randall Dahn,Peter J. Halfmann,Gabriele Neumann&Yoshihiro Kawaoka

  2. Heritage Vet Partners, Johnson, KS, USA

    Tera Barnhardt

  3. Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan

    Yasuo Suzuki

  4. Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Canyon, TX, USA

    Alexis Thompson

  5. Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College Station, TX, USA

    Amy K. Swinford&Kiril M. Dimitrov

  6. Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

    Keith Poulsen

  7. Department of Virology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

    Yoshihiro Kawaoka

  8. The University of Tokyo Pandemic Preparedness, Infection and Advanced research center (UTOPIA), University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

    Yoshihiro Kawaoka

  9. The Research Center for Global Viral Diseases, National Center for Global Health and Medicine Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan

    Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Authors

  1. Amie J. Eisfeld

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  2. Asim Biswas

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  3. Lizheng Guan

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  4. Chunyang Gu

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  5. Tadashi Maemura

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  6. Sanja Trifkovic

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  7. Tong Wang

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  8. Lavanya Babujee

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  9. Randall Dahn

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  10. Peter J. Halfmann

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  11. Tera Barnhardt

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  12. Gabriele Neumann

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  13. Yasuo Suzuki

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  14. Alexis Thompson

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  15. Amy K. Swinford

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  16. Kiril M. Dimitrov

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  17. Keith Poulsen

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

  18. Yoshihiro Kawaoka

    View author publications

    You can also search for this author in PubMedGoogle Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yoshihiro Kawaoka.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

About this article

Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus (4)

Cite this article

Eisfeld, A.J., Biswas, A., Guan, L. et al. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus. Nature (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-024-07766-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-024-07766-6

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Pathogenicity and transmissibility of bovine H5N1 influenza virus (2024)

References

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Eusebia Nader

Last Updated:

Views: 5814

Rating: 5 / 5 (60 voted)

Reviews: 91% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Eusebia Nader

Birthday: 1994-11-11

Address: Apt. 721 977 Ebert Meadows, Jereville, GA 73618-6603

Phone: +2316203969400

Job: International Farming Consultant

Hobby: Reading, Photography, Shooting, Singing, Magic, Kayaking, Mushroom hunting

Introduction: My name is Eusebia Nader, I am a encouraging, brainy, lively, nice, famous, healthy, clever person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.